LNG Liquefaction and Regasification Terminals
Client: Government of Israel, Ministry of National Infrastructures, Energy and Water Resources
After Mary B gas field was discovered, The State of Israel explored the possibilities to export and import LNG. In this context, TMNG was asked to examine two potential facilities: liquefaction terminal and regasification terminal.
Conducted during the period 2009-2012, the project entailed comprehensive services for an onshore liquefaction terminal and an LNG regasification terminal. The scope of work included preparation of a feasibility study, design, selection of applicable standards, land allocation for both terminals, and Evaluation of technologies for both onshore and offshore activities.
TMNG was faced with three complex challenges requiring unique expertise: technical know-how, external risk perception, and limited availability of shoreline for industrial use.
The technical know-how challenge lay in designing a facility that was neither too big nor too small. On the one hand, TMNG needed to ensure that an adequate footprint was designated for proper construction and operation of the facility and the related logistics. On the other hand, it was important to verify that precious land was being not wasted unnecessarily. Examples of other dilemmas included assurance of safe maneuverability for the LNG tankers without the need for building a new harbour and the advisable capacity for future expansion.
The external risk perception was perhaps the most challenging aspect of all. Global standards allow for much narrower proximity distances than the public was willing to accept. This meant, for example, that following the first screening of acceptable sites in terms of standards, another screening had to be performed in order to accommodate NIMBY attitudes.
The Israeli shoreline, long as it appears to be, is legally protected from development. This means that not only is it not possible to designate open shorelines for industrial use, but altering existing uses for future facilities is also a challenge to legitimize.
In order to augment the technical know-how and strengthen the management of public awareness, TMNG joined forces with Mustang Engineering for the regasification terminal study and with Worley Parsons for the liquefaction terminal activities. TMNG has traditionally extended its reach by attracting collaborations with global leaders in the industry, counting it as one of the key factors in its success.
The feasibility study for LNG Regasification and Liquefaction Terminals included the following elements:
- Statutory planning and environmental impact assessment (EIA)
- Selection of applicable standards: recommendation of applicable standards, best practices, safety codes and regulations for both onshore and offshore activities, with the focus on EN1473 and NFPA59A, and DNV and ABS regulations
- Risk and safety analysis
- Technology evaluation: a multidisciplinary process was conducted to evaluate the different aspects of regasification technologies, including water, hot water bath and air regasification, the main purpose being to make an informed decision regarding which regasification technologies and type of storage should be adopted
- Site evaluation: screening of potential locations for the liquefaction and regasification operations, suitability being determined by the footprint of the facility itself, safe distances for loading/offloading activities, and connection to the transmission grid
- Land allocation and planning: plotting of general layouts and process flow charts for the suggested locations and technologies
- Engineering aspects: determination of jetty locations, including civil, mechanical and process works, and assessment of LNG port operation
- First stage: TMNG suggested four alternative sites, all of which met the predefined criteria. The design capacity of the LNG regasification terminal amounted to 4 BCM a year.
- Second stage: Narrowing down of the above alternatives to two possible sites, both based on an offshore FSRU fixed to an existing Jetty.
The newly introduced technology in the project paved the way for its future adoption and use in the local market. By collaborating with Mustang Engineering and Worley Parsons a unique knowledge transfer process took place, helping to educate the market regarding the activities and ramifications of liquefaction and regasification.